Many African countries at one point or another since independence have found themselves in a state of instability because of one reason or another. The state of affairs rangers from both internal and external factors including non-state actors.
Political instability shortens policymakers' horizons because of a lack of hope for the future causing poor macroeconomic policies that do not make an impact on any country's growth.
The thought of switching governments at any time creates some volatility in any substantial course of action. These unending wars and conflicts in the continent have long-lasting negative impacts on the social and economic development of the Continent.
Impacts of political
Conflict and other problems compound the problem of unemployment especially with the huge population being young people and the advent of urbanization. Unemployment has been growing at a 10% rate annually in recent decades. As expected a young population with no skills and education or exposure are more likely to engage in criminal behaviors.
2Loss of life and property
War is very destructive and long years of investment can come down just in one day. The number of human lives also lost is immense and disruption of livelihoods is expected. Countries like Somalia which has been at war for the last 20 years have minimal development with infrastructural facilities destroyed.
The journey of reconstruction is long and challenging. In 1994 for instance, the Rwanda genocide took place with about 800,000 people massacred. In Liberia, over 250,000 lives were lost in the country's 14 + years of civil war between 1990 and 2004. That is a huge loss of human resources that could have boosted Africa's development.
The refugee situation is an expected by-product of war. The loss of livelihoods and homes leads to refugee situations. Most people end up homeless and vulnerable. They are forced to run to other countries for safety. The biggest refugee camps in Kenya, Kakuma, and Daadab are a result of instability in Somalia and South Sudan. The wars have caused serious humanitarian crises in Africa with many displaced people spread across the continent. According to UNHCR, in 2004 a total of African refugees was put between 15 to 20 million.
These are characterized by the uneven distribution of natural resources and marginalization. It should not be allowed.
Promotion of rule of law
Leaders should endeavor to promote the rule of law at all costs. Equal access to resources and opportunities regardless of differences by gender, race, or economic status.
Promotion of Human Rights
This is crucial to stop problems with poverty. Access to basic needs like food, shelter, and clothing is a necessity. Human rights dictate that all human beings should have access to basic needs and a decent living.
One of the characteristics of most poverty-stricken countries is political instability due to the fight for little available resources. The lack of resources is excavated by inequality and the lack of proper means of ensuring transparency and accountability. According to International Features and Forecasting Systems, around 37% of Africans live in extreme poverty which is around 460 million people.
More times than not, poverty results from the mismanagement of natural resources with a concentration of wealth within a small group of elite individuals and the inability of the government institutions to prevent conflict, and provide basic services that can help buffer detrimental effects on the poor.
This can be attributed to poor development and weak economies. Events such as manipulation of general elections, failing judicial systems characterized by unjust rulings, and disobedience of judicial rulings. The facade of democracy lack its substantive elements and portrays strong characteristic of autocratic systems. Dictatorship is never welcome and the citizenry will opt for an overthrow of government leaders leading to instability. An example is Kenya with clashes in 2007/2008 that arose due to alleged rigging of elections by the standing governments.
The distribution of natural resources should be equal and just but most leaders are known to selfishly accumulate wealth. One of the main inequality is income inequality which is caused by competition for meager resources. Unavailability of employment, education, health, or political participation is always followed by a demand for them in form of riots and civil unrest which may threaten democracy and stability.
According to research, economic inequality decreases political equality by increasing the resources and wealth of the rich and poverty among the poor.
One of the main causes of internal conflict in Africa is corruption. Corruption is prominent, it's almost an accepted phenomenon. It manifests in embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds which has paralyzed the development of any country. Masses are fed up with the leaders, always the same cancerous behavior provoking militant nationalism against its leaders.
Other factors like the age of its population affect political resilience. Africa is largely comprised of young people with the median age being around 19 which means more vigorous and temperamental people who are easily provoked.
Circle of wars. With some countries notoriously known for war prominence. Countries like Mali, Central African Republic, and DRC are trapped in this vicious circle.